LibBirch C++ Library
LibBirch C++ Library Documentation

LibBirch is a platform for probabilistic programming languages (PPLs), intended as a compile target. It provides functionality such as smart pointers and memory management for lazy deep copying (copy-on-write) of objects, and so maximize object sharing. This is particularly important for memory efficiency in PPLs using Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) and related methods for inference.

LibBirch supports C++ code generated by the compiler for the Birch PPL (

Construct, copy, move, assign

The lazy deep copy mechanism provided by LibBirch requires that a current context is provided upon object construction and assignment for correct bookkeeping. Consequently, it is necessary to thread this as an argument through any functions that may construct or assign objects.

Constructors have an additional context argument:

A(Label* context, Args... args);

The exception is the default constructor, which is always valid, as pointers to objects default construct to nullptr, for which no context is required:


The ordinary copy and move constructors of C++ should be used only for implicit type conversion:

A(const A& o);
A(A&& o);

When explicitly constructing an object as a copy of another, use the overloads with the additional context argument:

A(Label* context, const A& o);
A(Label* context, A&& o);

Internally, the lazy copy of an object invokes yet another copy constructor, although it is never necessary to call this directly:

A(Label* context, Label* label, const A& o);

Similarly, copy and move assignment operators of C++ are deleted and replaced with assignment functions that accept an additional context argument:

A& assign(Label* context, const A& o);
A& assign(Label* context, A&& o);